Tükörjelenségek az anatómiai nevekben
Subject: K+F tárgyszavak::2 Humán tudományok::2.4 Nyelvtudomány::2.4.2 Nyelvészet::126.96.36.199 Névtudomány
This article deals with a special kind of linguistic borrowing, the calques. After a brief bibliographic overview we offer a possible classification applied to anatomical names. Unfortunately, there is no fixed terminology in Hungarian for calque types. We will argue that calques can be divided into two main categories, the semantic and the lexical ones. The first one is originated from pre-existing word obtaining new meaning under the influence of a foreign pattern, the second one is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal translation. We have to differentiate the process of calque creation from the new lexemes thus obtained. As it can be seen, it is unnecessary to distinguish phraseological calques from lexical ones for purely formal reasons. In the second part of this paper we demonstrate some examples of anatomical names resulted in calques. The corpus of our analysis is the chapter Ossa of Terminologia anatomica, the international anatomical nomenclature. Finally, we show a sample entry for a possible dictionary of calques in the future.