Expanzió, önreflexió s annak hiánya az orosz politikában Szarajevótól a Herceg-szigetekig (1914-1919)
Russian expansionism in Europe during World War I - despite the temporary victories - by the end of 1916 concluded to an occasional and by the spring of 1918 a decisive defeat. Nicholas II was the first who was willing to take steps towards peace that led to the fiasco of Czarism. The new Russian Provisional government had been emphasizing the goal of the final victory continuously, which led to the victory of the anti-expansionist Bolshevik movement. Lenin and his followers had signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Central Powers at the spring of 1918, but after their defeat in the autumn of 1918 the Bolshevik government declared it null and void in all respects. The Allied Powers originally counted on the participation of Russia at the peace talks in Versailles, but by January 1918 they changed their mind. At the same time they had made steps to bring about a joint Russian position, so they invited all the Russian political movements and parties to Princes Islands nearby Constantinople. Nevertheless, the Russians were not able to form a common standpoint.